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As dementia develops, it can cause behaviour changes that can be confusing, irritating or difficult for others to deal with, leaving carers, partners and family members feeling stressed, irritable or helpless. By learning to understand the meaning behind the actions, it can be easier to stay calm and deal effectively with the challenges that arise. This factsheet outlines some typical sorts of unusual behaviour in people with dementia and explains some common causes.
Each person is an individual, with their own preferences and character traits. However, certain forms of behaviour are particularly common in people with dementia. If the person you are caring for has difficulty expressing him or herself in words, the unusual behaviour may become more extreme. By working out what each behaviour means, and finding ways to overcome the problem, the situation can become more manageable.
Common types of unusual behaviour
People with dementia often carry out the same activity, make the same gesture, or ask the same question repeatedly. Medical professionals sometimes call this 'perseveration'. This repetition may be because the person doesn't remember having done it previously, but it can also be for other reasons, such as boredom.
It is not unusual for a person with dementia to go through the motions of the activity they may previously have carried out at work. This can indicate a need to be occupied and to feel there is a purpose and structure to their life. Specific types of repetitive behaviour may include:
- Asking the same question over and over again - As well as memory loss, this can be due to the person's feelings of insecurity or anxiety about their ability to cope. Try to be tactful and patient, and encourage them to find the answer for themselves. For example, if they keep asking the time, and you know they are able to understand the clock, suggest that they look at the clock themselves. It may help if you to move the clock to a position that is more visible. People with dementia may become anxious about future events such as a visitor arriving, which can lead to repeated questioning. It may help if you don't mention the event until just before it takes place.
- Repetitive phrases or movements - This can be due to noisy or stressful surroundings, or boredom. Encourage the person to do something active, such as going for a walk. It can also be a sign of discomfort, so check that the person isn't too hot or cold, hungry, thirsty or constipated. Contact the GP if there is any possibility that the person may be ill or in pain, or experiencing a side-effect of medication.
- Repetitive actions - Actions such as repeatedly packing and unpacking a bag, or rearranging the chairs in a room, may relate to a former activity such as travelling or entertaining friends. If so, this may serve as a basis for conversation. Alternatively, it could signify boredom or a need for more contact with people.
- Repeatedly asking to go home - This may take place in residential care, or when the person is already at home. It can be a sign of anxiety, insecurity, fear or depression. The concept of 'home' might evoke memories of a time or place where the person felt comfortable or safe, or of a home, family and friends that no longer exist. If the person doesn't recognise their present environment as 'home', then it isn't home for them. Try to understand and acknowledge the person's feelings and reassure them that they are safe and loved.
- Multiple phone calls - Some people with dementia phone their loved ones over and over again - particularly in the middle of the night. This can be very frustrating and distressing. The person with dementia may forget that they have already called, or may be insecure or anxious. If you are receiving repeated calls, it may help to get a phone with a number recognition display or an answerphone so you can decide whether you want to answer, and switch mobiles and ringers off at night. You may feel guilty about not answering every call, but it's important to look after yourself and get some rest.
Tips: Coping with unusual behaviour
- Try to remember that the person you are caring for is not being deliberately difficult, their sense of reality may be very different to yours but very real to them. Dementia can affect a person's ability to use logic and reason so things that may seem obvious to you might appear to be very different for the person with dementia.
- Ask yourself whether the behaviour is really a problem. If the behaviour is linked to a particular activity such as washing or dressing, ask yourself if this task really needs to be done right now or if you could leave it for a while until the person has calmed down.
- Try to put yourself in the person's situation. Imagine how they might be feeling and what they might be trying to express.
- Offer as much reassurance as you can.
- Remember that all behaviour is a means of communication. If you can establish what the person is trying to communicate, you will resolve the problem much more quickly.
- Distract the person with calming activities such as a hand massage, stroking a pet, a drive in the country or by playing their favourite music.
- Try to make sure that you have support for yourself and breaks when you need them.
- Some people find unusual behaviours, particularly a repetitive behaviour, very irritating. If you feel you can't contain your irritation, make an excuse to leave the room for a while.
- If you find the person's behaviour really difficult to deal with, ask for advice from professionals or other carers before you become too stressed. Medication may sometimes be used for these behaviours, but this should be monitored and reviewed very carefully. Ask about the possible side-effects of any drugs so that if they appear you do not automatically assume that the dementia has become worse.
- Remember that it is possible to be the cause of the behaviour through a lack of understanding of what the person is trying to communicate. Try stepping away from the situation, look at the person's body language and try to understand what they might be feeling at that time. Give the person space to calm down and offer reassurance.